The True Nature of Matter and Mass | Space Time | PBS Digital Studios - Lake Harding Association

The True Nature of Matter and Mass | Space Time | PBS Digital Studios

The True Nature of Matter and Mass | Space Time | PBS Digital Studios

By Micah Moen 100 Comments January 11, 2020


NARRATOR: Einstein showed
us that matter, mass, and the flow of time are
intrinsically connected, but opened the question,
are they even real? Let’s find out. In a previous episode, we talked
about the speed of light– the fastest speed there is. And we talked about how
this speed limit is really the speed of causality. It’s the maximum speed at
which two neighboring bits of the universe can
talk to each other. Anything without mass
has to travel this speed. But what is it about mass
that prevents something from reaching the
ultimate speed? The answer to this will take
us to a much deeper question– what is the origin
of matter and time? However, it’s going to take
us a couple of episodes to get there. So today, we’re going to look
at the true nature of matter and mass a little more closely. We’ve already covered
Einstein’s famous equation, E equals Mc squared, and showed
that most of the mass of atoms comes from the kinetic
and binding energy of the quarks that make
up protons and neutrons. But saying that mass is energy
doesn’t really get us very far. It just begs the
question, what is energy? That’s a huge topic
that we’ll build up to. For now, let’s
look at this energy in terms of what’s actually
happening in an object when it exerts this
property we call mass. Let’s ignore the gravitational
effect of mass for the moment, and just consider mass as
the degree to which an object resists being accelerated. We call this inertial mass. A good place to start is
with a thought experiment that we’ll call a photon box. Imagine a massless box with
mirrored walls– impossible, I know, but it’s an analogy for
something real, as we’ll see. Now fill it with
photons, also massless, that bounce around inside
the box in all directions. All the walls of the box
will feel the same pressure, so there’s no overall
force on the box. But let’s give the box a little
nudge– increase its velocity. Now the back wall
of the box moves into the incoming photons. It feels a little more pressure
from their impact than before. In the meantime, the
front of the box, moving away from the incoming
photons, feels less pressure. There’s a net backward force
that feels like a resistance to the change in speed. The photons exert
a force on the box, the box also exerts a force
on the photons– Newton’s Third Law, which gives us
the conservation of momentum. Momentum lost by the box is
transferred to the photons. Now, if the box
stops accelerating, then everything jiggles
around and momentum gets shared out evenly between
the box and the photons again. But as long as
acceleration continues, the pressure
differential persists. Acceleration is
resisted in a way that feels exactly like mass. In fact, it’s indistinguishable
from mass, because it is mass. The photon box is massive, even
though none of its components– not the photons, not the
walls– have any mass. Somehow, mass arises
in the ensemble where it doesn’t exist in the parts. How much mass does the box have? It’s the energy of
the photons divided by the square of the
speed of those photons. And you can derive the famous
E equals Mc squared just by looking at how
momentum transfers between the photons in the
box under acceleration. But E equals Mc
squared describes the universal
relationship between mass and confined energy, not
just confined photons. So let’s look at another
example of confined energy. A compressed spring holds more
energy than a relaxed spring. It holds potential energy. So is a compressed spring more
massive than a relaxed one? You bet it is. Again, we can
describe this in terms of a straightforward
physical effect. An already compressed
spring is harder to compress further compared to
a relaxed spring. But that’s exactly what you have
to do when you try to move it. Push the spring, and it doesn’t
all start moving instantly. First, the rear
compresses a bit. And then a pressure wave
communications the force to the front until the
whole spring is moving. That initial push is harder
for the compressed spring than for the relaxed spring. It feels like it’s more
massive, because it is. These seemingly very different
physical effects– the box of photons and the
compressed spring– both give the same translation
between mass and energy, E equals Mc squared, because the
underlying cause is the same– the confinement of
interactions that themselves travel at the speed of light. Photons in the
photon box, but even in the spring, the
density wave is ultimately communicated by electromagnetic
interactions between the atoms. That itself is a speed
of light interaction, even if the resulting
density wave isn’t. OK, so how does this stuff
translate to something like a proton? 99% of the mass of the proton
is in the vibrational energy of the quarks plus the binding
energy of the gluon field. The actual intrinsic mass of the
quarks is a tiny contribution. So the proton is a lot like
a combination of our photon box and our compressed
spring– quarks, bouncing off the walls in the
binding gluon field, which itself acts like a
compressed spring, holding potential energy. And as we saw recently, even
those quarks, as well as electrons, gain
their tiny masses from a type of confinement
via the Higgs field. Take away the Higgs field,
and they are massless speed of light particles. It looks like
everything with mass is composed of a combination
of intrinsically massless, light-speed particles that are
prevented from streaming freely through the universe, as
well as the fields that confine those particles. So is mass really not
a fundamental property? Is it just the
result of massless particles and fields bumping and
sloshing around inside things resisting acceleration? Yeah, it kind of is. This acceleration resisting
mass, inertial mass, seems to be an emergent
property of the ensemble. But we can’t talk about mass
without talking about gravity. Massive objects
exert and respond to the force of gravity. They have what we call
gravitational mass. But how does the inertial
mass of our photon box end up translating to
gravitational mass? Once we accept Einstein’s
description of space-time as described by
general relativity, it’s not so surprising
that the photon box feels the pull of gravity. The equivalence
principle tells us that the feeling of being
accelerated out in space is fundamentally the same
thing as the feeling of weight in a gravitational field. Holding up our photon box
against Earth’s surface gravity has to be just as hard as
trying to accelerate it at 1 g in empty space. The photon box feels heavy. Same with the
compressed spring– it’s harder to accelerate
than a relaxed one, and it also feels heavier
in a gravitational field. In fact, the
equivalence principle tells us that the
gravitational mass of an object and the inertial
mass are the same thing. But mass doesn’t just respond
to a gravitational field. It generates one. Mass curves the fabric of space. Actually, it turns out that it’s
not just mass that bends space. The presence in the flow
of energy and momentum as well as pressure all have
their quite different effects on the curvature of space-time. Individual photons
affect space-time. And when you trap them in a box,
the curvature that they produce looks just like gravity. So confined massless
particles generate a very real gravitational field. OK, so mass is an emergent
property of the interactions of massless particles. What about time? A single photon
experiences no time, nor does any massless particle. Their clocks are frozen. But our photon box has mass,
so it must experience time. When and where does
this time arise? The individual
photons don’t have it when they travel from one
side of the box to the other. Do they get time when
they bounce off the wall? Does the ensemble of
photons somehow feel time that individual photons do not? We’ll explore these questions
when we delve deeper into the mystery
of matter and time in the next episode
of “Space Time.” In the last episode
of “Space Time,” we talked about how
the Higgs field gives elementary particles mass. And as always, you guys
had some great questions. Caleb Limb asks, does this
mean the Higgs field makes a little friction in space? Well, this is a bit of annoying
pop-sci misinformation. The Higgs field
isn’t like molasses or like a crowd
full of physicists. It doesn’t act like friction,
because friction slows down particles. The Higgs field doesn’t
slow particles down. It gives them inertia– a
resistance to acceleration. It makes them harder to
speed up or slow down. And importantly,
it prevents them from traveling at
the speed of light. Felix Feist points
out that given that the right-handed electron
doesn’t have weak hypercharge, shouldn’t it be massless? Well, yes and no. The right-hand electron can
interact with the Higgs field by picking up some
weak hypercharge. In fact, this flipping back
and forth between handedness is probably more
accurately thought of as the electron being
both right- and left-handed at the same time, because
the interchange happens on time scales shorter
than the Planck time. There’s a quantum blur
surrounding the current state of the electron. It’s really the composite
particle that has mass. The naked left- or right-handed
electron is massless. Death by PowerPoint
wonders whether there could be a point
in space somewhere where the Higgs field
takes on the value of zero, and what the
ramifications would be. Well, actually, yes–
or at least there was. At extremely high
temperatures, the Higgs field takes on a value
of 0 everywhere. And it’s believed that this
was the case in the fraction of a second after the big bang. Then, without an infinite source
and sink of weak hypercharge, the weak nuclear force and
the electromagnetic force were all the same force. Only when the universe cooled
down did the Higgs field gain a nonzero value in a phenomenon
called spontaneous symmetry breaking. Then the weak force
carriers gained mass and became differentiated from
the electromagnetic carrier– the photon. The ramifications–
we wouldn’t have atoms without a nonzero Higgs field. [MUSIC PLAYING]

100 Comments found

User

phyodors

I’m sorry but How can a photon exert a force on the box if photon is mass-less? f=ma=0*a=0 ?

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User

Nitesh Sapkota

Can we manipulate higgs field so that we can achieve speed of light??

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Rafal Kocielnik

The spring example: It is harder to push the spring in the direction of compression, as explained, but it should not be harder to push it in the perpendicular direction (i.e., push the spring vertically as in the screen). Would that suggest that mass is directional?

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Mark Thomson

If photons have no mass, how do they exert pressure on the walls of the box (1'57")?

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fgcbrooklyn

I can't stand this guy's accent. What's the problem with PBS? Can't they hire someone with a standard American accent? What? Do they really believe that any moron with a British accent 'sounds more intelligent?"  To me it's a distraction, in particular something so made-up and unnatural. Where did they get this guy, from the Cockney's unemployment list?

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Irvin Brumfield

Wait say that again! Wat Part. Just the part between the beginning and the end.

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User

Genius

If every human would understand physics, the world would be a better place.

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Søren Ladegaard Kristensen

1:45 If the photons are massless how do they transfer momentum to, i.e. assert a force on the walls?
6:45 And why are they affected by gravity?

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jackay k

I believe the string theory is very near true or close the true nature of matter and mass .and he didn't say Moo this time .

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User

GizmoMaltese

How long have people known this? Why didn't anyone tell me? Like others, my mind is blown. This completely changes the way I see the universe. What a brilliant explanation.

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lnhostetler

I am a (first-year) PhD student in theoretical particle physics, and I learned something new watching this video. In fact, I basically had a 'Holy crap it all makes sense now!' moment.

I am lucky to be learning physics in a time when there is such high quality content as this available at my fingertips.

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Frank Chase

Does the absence of the Higgs Field right after the Big Bang explain inflation?

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Dom Done

Aaaaah I knew it! Nothing is real, existence is a lie!!!!111111

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awddrifter 02

If photons have no mass, how do they exert "pressure" on your imaginary box? I hate that dumb analogy, and it shouldn't be used.

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phillip coetzer

@ 6:44 … according to all ive gathered from watching these videos
the time dilation of the particles in that cube have to account for something
also due to the curvature the lines that we may lay out to illustrate this will be much closer at the cubes bottom than at the cubes top end
and relatively equispaced in open space
therefore the particles will hit the bottom with more mass due to slower time than the partiles at the top end of the cube
is this not true? which would result in a downward force.

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Donna Duvall

I can have the most horrible day, be in the worse mood from all the other crap going on in the world, feel utterly alone and alienated…and tune into these brilliant, entertaining and mind boggling concepts delivered with perfection, and achieve a meditative state of bliss within seconds. Thank you…from science to sanity.

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Dave Brown

So in space we are not actually 'weightless' we are just experiencing a lot less gravity and so appear to float?

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Bela Kiss

I think the reasoning is circular since the photons in the massless box already act like they have mass, otherwise their momenta would be 0.

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Charlie Angkor

when they figure out where spacetime comes from, I will immediately ask: “and where does THAT come from?”

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bruinflight

Sooooo if quarks are massive does this mean they are not fundamental?

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Iwar Adamson

… so if matter is heated up does it also get heavyer?

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Nina Persson

Could the Higgsfield generate negative mass?

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Adam Spears

An Up-quark & 2 Down-quarks comprise a Neutron.

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dowingba

This guy has a bad habit of making things sound more confusing than they are. Matter and energy are not different things. Matter is merely a property of energy. Also the speed of light is the only speed that anything moves through spacetime.

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Raymond Pinner

Protons and Neutrons are made of Quarks and held together by Gluons, Bosons are believed to be the particle that interacts with the Higgs field – Where do the Bosons fit in? Quarks are said to be fundamental particles, so are the Bosons next to or among the Quarks and Gluons?

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the1onlynoob

Whats the follow up episode??

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Khalid Nezami

But the bigger question is, what is a thing in itself, if mass, which we used to define as the amount substance there is, turned out to be an emergent property, what is something then? What really are the fubdmenetal properties of things?

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Nazgul Linux

There is no such god damn thing as a "fabric" of spacetime. You will address this fact whether you like it or not. STOP using space time fabric. You damn well know it paints an incorrect insight for laymen.

Space time is the calculation of relative object coordinates when comparing changes of position relative to each other. These relative coordinate changes are calculated with a mathematical construct called a tensor. Tensors host variables of a matrix comprised of relative object x, y, and z positional coordinates. The quantified segment measured in a relative position change is plotted over a finite quantification of the event duration otherwise known as time.

This is how gravity of two masses and how much the acceleration is upon one or the other over a fixed duration.

STOP USING SPACE FABRICS YOU FUCK!!

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Hippy Killer

I think most of this shit is entirely wrong.

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Stefan Hensel

Finally I understand why getting up in the morning is so hard. It's all because of the photons holding me down.

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missbond

Watching this video and going through comments have helped me learn a lot than what I obtained in 12 years of schooling. Wish I had Youtube and such videos growing up- Physics wud have felt much different!

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Nudedragon

Re watching these before later episodes really helps, it makes much more sense the second time!

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Biednymaniek

Das zum Thema Psychopathie

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Hugo

But the knowledge about matter is only in your mind, in the mind of all of us. You can't prove there is matter outside our mind. You must show that the universe exists outside of our consciousness and that's impossible.

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apala singh

Does this mean that all the mass in the universe is just a result of energy transfer ? If it is then doesn't it mean that everything arised from nothing ?

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J Mark Morris

It's a lot simpler Matt. Spacetime is a superfluid of low energy particles. Mass is the interaction between what we know as matter-energy and the superfluid particles of spacetime. Specifically, it is the influence of the wave equation of matter-energy particles and the wave equation of the spacetime particles. https://johnmarkmorris.com/2019/10/14/neoclassical-physics-and-quantum-gravity/

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Visnevskis

If "photons" inside the "box" are massless, reflecting them doesn't exert any "pressure" from their impact to be greater on either side of acceleration. No?

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Larry Cornell

Nicely done!

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Martin

Are the fundamental constituents of space and time also the same for matter and energy at the most fundamental (tiny) level? It seems like, at some level, reality is reality, no matter what form it takes.

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User

OOF I did it again ow

This description is absolutely mind bending. I don't think people really grasp what is being described here. This existence is absolutely mind boggling.

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Phil Jamieson

This is a joy to watch (and listen to).

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Jimmy Brice

a bit disappointed that there was no comment about the "true nature of matter". since nobody knows the answer to this question, i was curious to see what would be said. we are all the way down to quarks and electrons. but then at the quantum level, is an electron really a particle ? and are quarks made up of something smaller ? i hope some day we will be able to truly find out if consciousness has anything to do with collapsing the wave function. if it does, then i think we can conclude that it is our conscious that is transforming that which is, into what we currently refer to as matter (particles)

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dirt man

this channel is probably the greatest thing on the internet, i watch these videos all the time and understand a little more each time, it's just crazy the nature of reality, this is some nonsense we are a part of xD i find it crazy that atoms are mostly empty space but they give off light and we see solid objects and magnetic fields they produce make it feel solid… this is wild… how in the hell did we get here… it's even more crazy that we are unraveling this… the thing running the matrix might pull the plug if we get any closer to the unified theory and figuring out the origin of reality

in school they never made it this fun to learn science, they would show you an atom and name the parts and tell you almost nothing. It was so boring you didn't even question it, you just hoped to memorize it and after the test was over you forget everything. In school I had no idea what mass was… it is funny i went through all of schooling without a proper understanding of some basic fundamental knowledge… american education system is terrible… you would have to major in physics to learn this stuff. Thank you for this channel. Never stop. Kids as soon as they can talk should be watching this.

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dontzenyourselfout

…too many predicates
too many questions
getting too glitzy
and gimmicky
nebulous
woffle
ps
…mentions everything
explains nothing

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The Artificial Society

To give a collection of particles momentum requires effort. So why do we need a Hiigg’s field to associate mass to the particles. Why isnt the requirement to induce momentum into the collection relate to effective mass. If you take photons, they have momentum. If things are bound, you can still associate a momentum to everything. Any bound collection can have a net momentum and hence more effort is required to make the collection have more effort. It seems that the mass comes from the fact that everything got bound together and you did not need a Higg’s field to bind everything. The fundamental forces bound everything at which point there is a mass because the bound object now has a bound velocity and a bound net momentum.

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Mark Fennell

A box without mass would essentially be a box made of energy Strings.

A particle without mass would be a spherical structure composed of energy strings.

A photon when hitting the walls will transfer some of its strings to the string structure of box (or sphere). This added energy will cause box to vibrate faster or move in a direction.

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Blue Roots Denver TV

So if you had a gigantic spring and weighed it on a scale then compressed the hell out of it and clamped it somehow…it would then weigh more?

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Agent Anderson

Eukaryotic cells about 7 trillion of them make a human being.   atoms make the cell,   protons,  neutrons and electrons make up a single atom.   the god particle , string theory , quantum entanglement, super position scalar waves are all explanations of what make up the subatomic particles?   

i believe at this level of reality and understand there must be a sound structure as organized as are human cell plant cells the periodic table ?   i have this idea based on the perfection of these other structures ,  intelligent design ,  of whom i believe and support the biblical narrative!     

in my model of subatomic structure i have formulated a simple understandable model that explains this dark world of nature. i call my theory the capsule light or light cell. the structure is one unit in diameter and 1.6 in lengths, at the top of the cell has a cone shape that fits into the next cell unit, at the bottom of the cell it has a concave shape that receives the cell below it, there is a positive charge at the top of the cell and a negative charge at the bottom this provides a ionic bond supporting the physical bond do to the geometric shape. the cells form strings, the strings form structures, much like human cells form tissues, tissues form organs so on. the center of the light cell is where an interface occurs, it is like a plasma portal to the fourth dimension, i.e. antimatter origin, all energy waves light operate out of this cell, the cells can be split into single units and re constructed into other systems. this is controlled by using sound waves crafted over a dynamic algorithm differential equations within Z=space so it is very teachable ! how could this light cell model be anything other?

quantum superposition scalar energy ! the light mass interface. God spoke this universe into existence, words are power in more ways than most will ever know. ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,……..Sci19

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User

Gregory Solomon

This gentleman probably knows the subject,but his voice ant his looks preventing the subject to penetrate the
listener mind….

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Ivars Vēza

Tieši tas, ko vēlējos zināt jau sen.

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James McHarry

Would like to hear more on electrons. Did you say that the composite electron has mass but not the electron?

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captain black body

3:02 is is basis of our current theory of understanding everything is possible " somehow "
.
Even somehow whole universe come in existence without any known source of energy☺.
.
Gravity we don't know but somehow it's effect all our reality,
.
Light doesn't have mass but somehow it has momentum which can transfer to other object but light has no mass.
.
Opposite charged particle interact with each other and create a neutral particle but somehow atoms exist with two opposite charged particle.
.
Nothing can come out from a black hole not even light fastest way to transfer energy but somehow black hole effect our whole Galaxy transfer his Momentum into motion of our Galaxy but nothing can come out from black hole somehow this energy can transfer black hole through galaxy☺😊.
.
Well you cannot understand this because you can't understand complicated equations which somehow govern our universe.

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User

Guðbjörg Gísladóttir

Why do I get a Headache every single time I try to watch this video and listen (understand) what the hell he is explaining?

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Mikayla Eckel Cifrese

This is the first time I've started to actually understand where mass comes from and why photons are massless. Thanks for this video!

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Carl Hopkinson

What is time? It doesn't matter. What is matter? I haven't the time.

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jaeden Drake

Is the Higgs field the fabric of space-time?

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Chris Clark

Well I'm confused. If the speed of light is the same for all observers then surely the impact speed of the photons on any side of the box must be the same – c? And hence the momentum exchange must be the same……

I don't think I really understand this relativity stuff……

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Vishnu S

suppose i made a rod which length from earth to mars (image it has negligible weight). if i move the rod from earth, does the end of the rod move at the same time on mars or it will take 8 minutes (avg time to reach light from mars to earth) ?

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Hermione Granger

Everyone is saying that they understand and I’m over here stressing because I have a test on the Nature of Matter and I don’t u derramas anything because I’m slow

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Alan Ussher

awesome ! thank you ,,,,,,

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LuXferm InteGrama

Dude! Your Hand-gestures!… If you stopped at the first lesson in some body-language course, please continue it! :))) You don't just need to show your hands palms up… you need harmony and sync , & there are pauses where you DON'T need to use them, You're too annoying this way you do now… looks so artificial like you read a course & try to apply like a school boy.. In rest, thanks for your efforts!

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Alexey Filippenko

Where's the next promised video?
Found it. v=GguAN1_JouQ

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Petoren

Is Higgsfield the only possible explanation for elementary restmasses?

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Eyal Lotem

This is such a great episode!

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Sphinx Rising

The nature of matter & mass should also mention energy, since matter & energy are the same thing in different states of existence.

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X-01 Unknown

I saw the massless box analogy at a lecture. Nice to see it being used here as it’s easier to visualize than the concept beneath it.

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Chris

I just watch it because he has hairy eyebrows

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Moksh Rajput

SO IF MASS ARRISES FROM MASSLESS PARTCICLE WITH ENERGY, AND A SINGLE PHOTON HAS ENERGY OF FREQUENCY*PLANCK'S CONSTANT, WHY DOSEN'T A PHOTON HAS MASS?

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WormholeJim

I bet that concept "spontaneous breaking of symmetry" is going to have a name change at some point. Or it'll be abandoned in favour of something more ..precise, I guess. At least, there is nothing truely spontaneous – we'll have to assume this, since everything  in cosmos is an effect of a prior cause as well as a cause to a subsequent effect. And symmetry, being an expression of a whole which is made up of elements in internal balance can't decide on it's own to become imbalanced. Either it's symmetrical in which case the whole is in balance, or it is not in symmetry, in which case the whole is not in balance. It can't change state without an, well, outside effect causing the change of state. It is kinda simple, it's only my trying to explain my joke making it seem complex.

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Diego Mendoza

Please, translation in Spanish, there a lot of people that see this shows in Latin America

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Random Projects

So I have an interesting thought experiment. Suppose one has two apparatuses consisting of a spring and a device to hold that spring either in a compressed or relaxed state, each with identical uncompressed mass. If I were to compress one spring and leave the other uncompressed, and place each in an orbit that would be stable for the 'weight' of the uncompressed apparatus, the compressed spring would loose orbit and eventually crash due to the increase of energy and thus mass?

Or another angle, assume the same apparatus but with the added ability to compress itself using a battery and a motor. Because no transfer of energy is 100% efficient, the act of compressing the spring would actually require more energy from the battery than the compressed spring contains. Would that apparatus then begin to slowly move away from the object it is orbiting because it now has less mass? Even if the 'lost' energy is expressed as heat radiated equally in all directions?

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Agent Anderson

i was thinking last nite about e=mc2? so energy measured in what? anything, = the mass of anything times the speed of lite X the speed of lite! so Einstein is saying that mass is energy in a solid state? and mass in any state is energy in different states of being? light, heat, any part of the electromagnetic scale and attached to gravity?

so in theory you can rearrange this equation to get any part using any 2 parts. egress: in my light cell model i claim that all mass is made from a light cell all electrons protons and neutrons similarly like a human is composed of single cells that form tissues that form organs that form humans or animals or plant life! applying this model i compose all mass into single cell light energy! if you could see one it looks like this conical on top with a positive charge, concave on bottom with a negative charge has a diameter on one unit and a length of 1.6 long.

in this quantum cell of mass at the center is a super position scalar transmitter receiver where instruction are created and carried out in the brain of the cell. it is where the antimatter portal to the forth dimension is located and how i believe beings have the ability or skill to navigate from one dimension to another , inter dimensional travel at a subatomic level in a plasma wave that can jump time space ?

this center of the light cell is the matter antimatter doorway to dark energy, or dark mass! its like faith , within a human mind: faith is the substance of things hoped for the evidence not seen . we know dark matter is real but no idea what it is? i believe dark mass is this gravity particles or antimatter acting to counter balance other dimension outside the viable universe?

look at what is around you? we cant see electrons but put your fork in a toaster turn it on and you will be a believer! also these light cells that make up all mass form chains or strings that vibrate at different levels of energy giving it the difference of protons neutrons and electrons . i believe sound waves can brake these matter antimatter light cells allowing man to recreate mass at it basic elementary level! the grand equation must equate these variable in the expression , mass, energy, gravity, antimatter, and dimensions , dark energy, scalar waves, super position! e=mc2 is part of this grand equality , physics , time, must complete the grand work! ………………………………………………………………………………Sci19

also it needs to be explained so that a 4th grader can completely understand it and use it in his or her work!

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Mahmoud Ali

Having a collection of atoms glued together like ours(E=MC2) stationary relative to the expanding space of our universe they are now traveling 'throug' space with the speed of light, they start to move relative to the expaning space of our universe then they start to move 'with' the expanding space proportionally, the collection traviling with the speed of light(no way) then they have no experience of the expansion(time), they racing the speed of light(no way still) then they go back on time to the birth of our universe.
I'm looking for correction.

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Les Adams

Shorter than the Planck time? (9:31)

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Jess Z

Cool vids; pls revise musical theme which is painful tho brief.

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Brian Bolin

Shine a light in a perfect mirroring box and seal the photons inside. Do the photons bounce forever at the speed of light?
If not, then where does the non mass particle lose it's energy in a perfect mirroring box as energy would only be lost if mass collided with mass as photons reflected could not lose energy or change forms as it has no mass. If it loses energy it has mass even if imperceptible to our point of relative observation.

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Yours Truely

Photons… Show me one.. No single photons have ever been produced. Cutting down power does not make a single photon.

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Yours Truely

Tbe higgs field is not even proven. But its needed to hold up all the other hypothesis.

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Yours Truely

The feeling of beeing acellerated. Yes give me a mathematical formula of feeling.

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Brian Bolin

If E=mc^2
Then for a photon:
E=0×c^2
Therefore E=0
Solve for c:
c=square root of (0/0)
c=0
No mass no acceleration.
F=ma
But not universal.

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Андрей Полевиков

Explanation of the Universe.
The mass of matter is even more curved space than the gravitational field. These are closed space measurements due to the impact of at least two photons with sufficient energy. This canned curvature of space creates an elementary particle. Time is the rotation of the quanta of space. With respect to a moving photon, this rotation is zero. More details here.

https://ru.calameo.com/read/0033783564a96e15b646e

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William Crownin

Best lecture yet. I always had these questions but never knew they had the answers in physics.

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EXHALER Wolf

Photons are massless. Pressure is given by force per unit area. How does a bunch of photons exert pressure if they have no mass?
Edit: A quick Google search tells that photons do have momentum. Noice.

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Shruggz Da Str8-Faced Clown

"Our massless photon box…has mass"

???

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Lief Wezeman

My mind is absolutely blown… The inertia of quarks interacting with gluon fields is the essential origin of mass??? Whoa…

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wwindsunrain

This video is brilliant. Watched it two nights ago and it made things clear to me that I never understood before. Thanks Matt and crew!

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APOSTR

I'am a lawyer and addicted to this videos. And asking question: "What I'am doing with my life?".

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OutLawStarGod Starwin

I keep seeing 241 dislikes on most of your episodes who are these guys they never write why they dislike 241 mad 👨🏻‍🔬 👨🏻‍🔬 👨🏻‍🔬

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Nate Olson

Are you married? Asking for a friend.

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Sam Edinger

Massive double speak, purely retarded nonsense. Fake science, fake news

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Simon Watts

5:30 … lost it

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Vi Tang

Everything is all wrong….when a particle reaches the light of speed…it becomes a wave

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JorgeForge

It was more entertaining than I expected. i was about to stop the video at "can't travel faster than the speed of light", but then it became interesting. Thumbs up for showing me another way to look at matter/time.

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lasso atrain

Maybe because the universe is Spinning and out near it's largest diameter it is Spinning at or near the speed of light which would explain the accelerating expanding universe and the stretching of space it's self.it is not because of the big bang but because of the big spin that makes things accelerate .like a bigger tire covers more distance per the same revolution with a smaller tire or a smaller diameter with in a larger universe. And since things can not travel faster then light ,there must be a maximum size the universe can be. determined by how fast it is spinning. : [

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Thomas Farr

In the earliest moments of the universe, could the "Higgs field" have developed as a process, or must it intrinsically exist from the moment of of the universe's beginning? My question arises from the apparent non homogeneous appearance of the structures seen in the universe.

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John Zechmeister

Thank god for Higgs field then 😀

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JOHN M.V

Particle that makes matter :
https://youtu.be/A3SSf-PoBg4

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Michael Smith

Where is the experimental or observational evidence that a photon itself exerts a gravitational field? Please list the publication details? The world wonders.

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Danny THE Dog

Hi, i'm hig'. Too high for this . Really a first time likewise.

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Simon Sozzi

I wanna see a compressed spring weighing more…with my own eyes…on a scale!

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