Chapter 36.7 - Aquatic Ecosystems and the Biosphere - Lake Harding Association

Chapter 36.7 – Aquatic Ecosystems and the Biosphere

Chapter 36.7 – Aquatic Ecosystems and the Biosphere

By Micah Moen 0 Comment October 9, 2019

it is now time to conclude the video
series for the introduction to biology class with our last video concerning
aquatic biomes and in this video we’re going to look diversity of aquatic
ecosystems found throughout the planet Earth recall that planet Earth is
seventy-five percent water with the majority of the aquatic habitat being
salt water habitats so will first start off with marine ecosystems the world’s
oceans form a continuous body of saltwater regions within an ocean can
vary markedly and their physical characteristics in terms of water depth
here are the major regions first you have the intertidal zone which consists
of a beach that is exposed to air at low tide but submerged at high tide so you
have different groups of organisms that are adapted to these types of conditions
then you have the coastal zone which is the zone it extends from the intertidal
zone to a depth of about 200 meters its outermost edge is defined as the
continental shelf in which the land falls deeper into the ocean the bottom
of the ocean is called the benthic zone which can or cannot have lots and lots
of life generally in the middle of the ocean the benthic zone is the void of
lots of life just because of the fact that there’s not a whole lot of
productivity down there however certain areas such as deep sea vents have lots
of productivity due to organisms that can carry out a form of chemosynthesis
by taking nearby inorganic materials and producing ATP from there most of the
ocean is open sea which has a photic zone which is we’re going to find more
of your your plankton and photosynthetic organisms and then the rest of it is
more in your pelagic zone where it’s deeper and light doesn’t penetrate as
well in fact most of the oxygen on this planet and most of your productivity
happens in the open ocean water movement in the ocean is dominated by different
processes at different depths heat down in the ocean is populated by distinct
species that are adapted to physical conditions present the intertidal and
coastal zones include coral reefs which are among the most productive
environments on earth so we’re going to look at now Rd freshwater ecosystems now
freshwater ecosystems are similar to your oceans especially in the stagnant
water is such as lakes and ponds nutrients are oftentimes in short supply
and aquatic ecosystems because of the great amount of water that dilute the
nutrients available now just like in oceans the photic zone is the area in a
body of water that pen at that light penetrates and we’re going to find most
of your photosynthetic organisms the littoral zone is where the land meets
the water and you end up having a lot of your submerged plants grow there and the
profundas own is the area in which light barely penetrates and again you have
specific species of organisms that are adapted for each one of these conditions
unfortunately freshwater ecosystems can incur eutrophication which is an
abundance of nutrients this can happen either naturally or artificially its
artificial infants due to fertilizer runoff from agriculture as I spoke about
earlier with nitrogen runoff lakes and ponds are distinguished by size ponds
are generally small and lakes are large enough that the water in them can be
mixed by wind and wave action the littoral zone is consist of the shallow
waters along the shore or flowering plants are rooted for example lily pads
tend to grow on a littoral zone the photic zone is the area where your
photosynthetic organisms will reside such as plankton fish are generally
found in all levels of the lake depending on the adaptations that they
have catfish generally have found more to bottom of the lake and then yellow
perch are found more towards the middle and top parts of the lake then you have
the pro fundal region also known as the benthic region which you have a myriad
of macro invertebrates that feed off the dead decaying matter that
all at the bottom of the lake another freshwater region is a wetland and a
wetland is a shallow water habitat where the soil is saturated with water for at
least part of the year so wetlands can be temporary or permanent here’s an
example of a wetland found in Rockcastle County Kentucky and Daniel Boone
National Forest that has only salamanders and frogs that reside in it
because it dries up in the drier months organism to live in wetlands conclude
ducks snakes dragonflies and amphibians all of which depend on this temporary
system in order for them to work you generally don’t find fish in wetlands
because they dry up at certain times of the year unable which is unable to allow
these fish to survive another environment are your streams and rivers
streams moved constantly in one direction creeks are essentially small
streams rivers are large streams most dreams are shallow enough that sunlight
reaches the bottom for example here’s a creek in my home county of Bracken
County this is an example of a creek because it’s narrower and much more
shallower and you can easily see the bottom generally shallower and narrower
creeks have a faster flow rivers on the other hand are much wider and have a
slower flow of water here’s a new River in West Virginia generally the organisms
that live in streams and rivers are adapted for constant motion and have
things like suckers the ability to flat flatten themselves in between rocks
those are types of adaptations that you would find in those organisms another
type of freshwater environment actually kind of mixes with a marine environment
and that’s called an estuary sonne estuary forms where river meets an ocean
and fresh water mixes with salt water and these are very specific specific
species will be found in different levels of what we call salinity the
amount of salt found in a given body of water so notice here that Washington DC
has more fresh water up to a point here where it becomes slightly salty becomes
more salty until you get out into the Atlantic Ocean itself
each of those given areas have specific groups of organisms that are adapted to
the types of salinity that lived there most areas are relatively shallow but
water debt may vary dramatically water flow fluctuates daily and seasonally due
to tide storms and floods this fluctuation alters the salinity example
species are blue crab which are commonly found in crab cakes and stuffed crab a
lot of oyster beds are found especially in a Chesapeake Bay in many different
areas up up and down Florida which are used for consumption I didn’t have fish
like mummy hogs which are used to the different fluctuations in salinity pH
and temperature so this concludes all the major different biomes and aquatic
ecosystems found on the planet the last major thing that deals with ecology is
an area called the biosphere the biosphere is the seven-mile layer about
1.8 miles below the earth’s crust to as high as 5.2 miles above sea level in
which life exists so essentially all life lives in a seven-mile layer on
planet Earth so the big question becomes is third life outside of planet Earth
this life exists elsewhere as profound and as amazing as seen on this planet
well those questions are actually valid in science and we’re often times trying
to look every day to see if life exists elsewhere when in the meanwhile let me
share a quote with you black Carl Sagan famed astronomer who had a very big love
for life and he made a very famous quote we take a look at this picture where it
says you are here this was the earth as image from the Voyager 1 spacecraft as
it exited the solar system in 1990 any quotes look again at that dot that’s
here that’s home that’s us on it everyone you love everyone you know
everyone you ever heard of every human being who ever was lived out their lives
the aggregate of our joy and suffering thousands of confident religions
ideologies and economic doctrines every hunter and forager every hero and coward
every creator and destroyer of civilization every King and peasant
every young couple in love every mother and father hopeful child inventor and
Explorer every teacher of morals every corrupt politician every superstar every
Supreme Leader every saint and sinner in history of our species lived there on a
mote of dust suspended in a sunbeam

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